Google Scholar

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Google Scholar allows the students and educators to search across a wide range of academic literature. It is essentially designed to help you discover scholarly sources that exist on your topic. If you discover your sources, you will want to get your hands on them. If you want to learn how to set the preferences, you need to watch the video tutorial on Google Scholar Settings.

It is a freely accessible web search engine that indicates the full text or metadata of scholarly literature. Specifically, its index included most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, theses and dissertations, preprints, technical reports, abstracts, conference papers, and other scholarly literature subsuming court opinions and patents. Google Scholar is similar to the functioning of freely available websites such as getCITED and CiteSeerX. It also having same characteristics of other subscription-based tools like Elsevier's Scopus and Clarivate Analytics Web Science.

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This tool lets to search for digital and physical copies of articles whether you're in online or in libraries. Google Scholar's search results having links to commercial journal articles. Most of the people will able to access an abstract only, the citation details of an article, and have to pay a fee to access the entire article.

The most relevant results included for the searched keywords will be available at first based on author's ranking and the number of references that are linked to it, ranking of the publication that the journal appears in, and the relevance to other scholarly literature. It has subsumed different features such as group of, cited by, and related articles.

With the group of feature, you can able to display available links to journal articles. The feature is provided with a link to both subscription-access versions of article and to free full-text versions of articles. You can allow to access major open access repositories by providing published links but it doesn't provide web links individually on faculty web pages. You can able to access to the self-archived non-subscription versions which are provided by link to the Google wherein one can find open access articles. Cited by feature offers a facility to access the abstracts of articles that have available in the article. Formerly, it provided citation indexing which could be found in Scopus, CiteSeer, and Web Of Science. Based on Related Articles feature, Google Scholar introduces a list of closely related articles ranked as first.

Ranking System

Most of the academic databases and search engines lets the users to choose one factor whether citation counts, relevance, or publication results in order to give the rank results. It ranks results with a combined ranking algorithm in a way of researchers do, the publication in which the article appears, weighing the full text of each article, and how often the piece has been cited in other scholarly literature. Google Scholar Research puts high weight on citation counts especially and words included in a document's title.

Search Engine Optimization for Google Scholar

Since many years, Google has been popular based on Search Engine Optimization and the same is applied for Google Scholar which is one of the academic search engine tools. SEO for academic articles is also named as academic search engine optimization and it is defined as the publication, creation, and modification of scholarly literature. This is specifically helpful for making academic search engines to crawl it and index it very easier. A SEO has been adopted by Google Scholar in order to optimize the rankings of articles.

Check your Sources

Google Scholar uses various types of sources such as dissertations, books, articles, unpublished versions of articles, conference papers, and other sources.

Search Tips

With the help of search tips, you can easily get the most out of Google Scholar based on email alerts, citation export, and more.

Finding Recent Papers

The search results will be sorted out by relevance not by the date. In order to find newer articles, you can try out for the following options such as since year to show only recently published papers which are filtered out by relevance, sort by date which shows you the new additions, and envelope icon have the results about new updates which are periodically delivered by email.

Locating the Full Text of an Article

On Google Scholar, abstracts are freely available for any article and reading an entire article may require the subscription. There are few things to try out to locate the full text of an article. It included different options such as library link, all versions, a link enabled PDF, and related articles or cited by. If you're affiliated with the university, but you don't view the library link. In this case, you can check out for your local library to get access to the best way of online subscriptions. You may need to search from a computer or library or to configure your browser in order to use a library proxy.

Getting Better Answers

  • If you're new to specific subject and you want to know better answers, you can get help to picking up the terminology from secondary sources. For example, if you're looking for overweight article, Google Scholar suggests you to search for a keyword like pediatric hyperalimentation.
  • For suppose, if the search results are too specific for your needs, you can check out for what they're citing in the references section. References will work more often when you're searching for general topics.
  • If you think that search results are too basic for your needs, you can click on cited by to view newer papers that referenced them. Sometimes, the newer papers will often be more specific.
  • Explore option is rarely single answer for research questions. You can click related articles or cited by to view closely related work. Otherwise, you can search for author's name if you want to know what else they have written.

Google Scholar Library

Specifically, Google Scholar Library is helpful for storing your personal collection of articles. You can easily save articles right off the search page, organize them by topic and use the search tips to quickly find the article that you want at any time and from anywhere. You can easily decide what goes into your library and keep the links up to date.

Read about Google Scholar WIKI

You can get all goodies with the search results by citing articles, formatted citations, related articles, links to your university's subscriptions, and more. With the single click, you can easily and quickly fill up your library with the articles whichever you want. You can import all articles under your public scholar profile including other articles they cite. In order to add particular article to your library, you can find the article that you want to add and click on save link under search result.

 For suppose, if you have a public scholar profile, you can import the articles that your publications are cited. For that, you can click on cited by me option which is available on the left column of your library page. You can click on my library option at the top of home page or in the left column of a search results to view all articles in your library. In order to search for full text of any specific article, you can enter your query as usual in the search box. If you want to remove particular article from your library, you can click the delete button at the top of web page. To categorize your articles, you can use labels for filtering out the results. If you want to add a label to an article, you can find the article in your library and click on its title.

Open the labels drop down list and click on a particular type of label that you want to apply. To see all articles with a specific label name, you can click the label name on the left column of web page. As similar as the adding a label, you can also remove a label for a particular article by choosing a label that you want to remove. Using manage labels option, you can add, edit, or delete labels for specific articles very easily. Your profile at Google Scholar contains all information about articles that you've written yourself. It's a perfect way to present your work to others as well as keep tracking of citations to it.

Similarly, your library is facilitating a perfect way to organize the articles that you'd like to read or cite not just the articles that you'd written. Your library included all articles in your profile and they appear under my citations label. The articles which are labelled as cited by me are automatically extracted from bibliography sections of the papers in your public scholar profile.

Citation Export

Whether you may want to add the full citation of a result on Google Scholar to my bibliography manager. In that case, you need to visit the settings page and choose your preferred citation format under bibliography manager section. It currently supports various types of citation formats such as RefMan, EndNote, RefWorks, and BibTeX. If you've done with the settings saving process, you can add an import link to each search result. It will not allow the users to access bulk amount of articles. For that, you will need to make an arrangement directly with the source of data that you're interested in. You can keep in mind that a lot of record in Google Scholar come from commercial subscription services.

Content Coverage

The organization indexes research articles and abstracts from major academic publishers and repositories. You can search for samples in the article titles to know current coverage of content related to specific article. It is not possible to guarantee that uninterrupted coverage of any particular source. Google Scholar implemented the meticulous search robots which are specifically try to index every article from the website they visit subsuming most major sources and also many lesser known ones.

This website is designed for searching academic papers not for the shorter articles like news sections, announcements and letters, book reviews, editorials, and more. However, untitled google scholar articles and documents without authors may not included under this website. It will not include the websites which require to sign up for an account, watch colorful ads, and install a plugin.

How to Get Fewer Results while Searching for particular article

Usually, it will index for many of the papers from other websites which are from their primary publishers. The site. operator searches only the primary version of each paper. The papers are located on not on and you must ensure that search for articles on proper websites. The efficient way to check for best coverage of any specific article is that you could search for a sample of particular papers based on the title of paper. As the organization indexes the academic papers not the journals, you must search for the coverage of universities, proteins, research groups, and other relevant dimensions.

Inclusion and Corrections

In order to provide appropriate information about articles, you need to write the owner of the website where the erroneous search result is coming from and encourage them to provide correct bibliographic information as described in technical guidelines for any article. If the data is corrected on particular website, it can take usually takes 6 to 9 months to a year or longer than it to be updated in the Google Scholar.

How to Add My papers to the Google Scholar

If you're unable to find your article when you searching for an author or title, you can refer your publisher to the technical guidelines. For that, you can deposit your papers into your institutional repository store or else put their PDF versions to your personal website. When you're doing this, you should follow your publisher's requirements. If you want to know more information, you can read technical guidelines under inclusion process. It adds new papers several times a week. However, it might take some time to access larger websites and corrections can take 6 to 9 months to a year or longer. Google Scholar reflects the state of the web as it is currently visible to the search robots. When you're searching for related papers that you want to read, you wouldn't want it any other way.

Google Scholar Citations

The citations option allows the authors to keep tracking of citations to their articles. With this tool, they can easily get to know who is citing their publications, graph citations, and determine several citation metrics. You can make your profile as public so that you can have a chance to appear in search results when people are searching for your name. The maintenance of citations is very simple and quick to set up even though if you've written hundreds of articles and your name is shared by several scholars. You can specifically select your list of articles that are updated automatically or review the updates yourself or manually update the articles at any time.

Setting up Your Profile

Within simple steps, you can sign up for Google Scholar Author profile. For that, you need to consider below steps as follows:
  • Initially, you can sign into your Google account or create a new one if you don't have already. It recommends you to use your personal account not an account at your employer. So that, you can keep your account as long as you wish.
  • Once you've accomplished the process of sign up, you're required to consider citations signup form which will be asked you to confirm the spelling of your name, and to enter affiliation, interests, and more. It also recommends you to provide your university email address that makes your profile eligible for inclusion in Google Scholar search results.
  • After that, you can view groups of articles which are written by people with names similar to yours. Accordingly, you can click on add all articles tab which is next to each article group. If you don't see the articles that you've searched in the articles group, you can do a regular search on Google Scholar and add articles at a time. You can do multiple searches whenever you want.
  • Once you've completed the process of adding articles to your profile, it will be prompted to what to do when the article data changes in the Google Scholar. In this case, you can choose either update the profile automatically or review them beforehand. You can also make changes personally by hand.
  • In the final stage, you will view your profile. It is the best time to add a few finishing touches to your profile. It may include upload your professional looking photo, double check the list of articles, make your profile as public, and visit your university email and click on the verification link. If you done all these things, your profile and articles will be viewed on Google when user searches for your articles with titles or your name.

How to Add Missing Articles

From the actions menu, you can choose add button and search for articles using title, your name, or keywords. You may not find out some of the articles when you've searched for them. To add one article at a time, you can click search articles and add article option which is available next to the article that you wish to add. When you've added the articles, the citation metrics are automatically updated. If you're not able to find right article, you can click on add article manually.

After that, you can type the title, author, and other relevant information and click save button to appear under search results. You should make a note that the citations to manually added articles might not appear on search results in your profile for a few days. Alternatively, if you want to add group of articles, you just click on search article groups and add all articles tab which is available next to the group which you wish to add. You may required to select multiple groups whereas in the case of written articles under different name or in different journals, or with multiple groups of colleagues. The citation metrics are automatically updated to your account for the groups.

Google Scholar really doesn't know which articles are belonged to you. It uses statistical model to know different authors but such automatic process of knowing is not always accurate. It's better to go through your profile and remove the articles which you didn't write. If you've deleted the articles by mistake and want to add once again, you can go to trash box and choose the view trash option from the actions menu. In order to restore the article, you can go to restore button by choosing particular article. You can click the title of the article and click the edit button. If you've done with the changes to your article, you can click on save button. If you've made substantial changes to the article, you should keep important notes in mind.
  • A list of scholar articles at the bottom of page which may no longer match the article that you've edited. It will recommend to review the list and scholar articles affect the computation of your cited by counts.
  • With the manual additions of articles, it might take several days for citations to the edited article. You can also speed up the process with the addition of articles from Google Scholar and citation metrics are already updated when you've added the articles.
  • The article you've edited in your profile as separate record. It recommends to merge the duplicate articles and click the title or author column header to filter out the results based on title and choose the checkboxes next to the duplicate entries.

Making Your Profile Public

If your profile is private and visible to you, you can click the edit link which is available next to my profile is private and choose the make my profile is public. In this way, you can make your profile as public. You can also add email address at your university or institution. In order to be eligible for inclusion under Google Scholar results, your profile needs to be public and your email address need to be verified. To add email address to your profile, you can click the edit link that is next to no verified email.

After that, you can add your email address and save button. It will send you email message with a verification link. Your profile will be included under Google Scholar results. It will not disclose your email address in your profile and will not reuse or trade it or use it to send you email unrelated to the Google Scholar.